News and Updates


Seeking to better understand the structure and composition of asteroid 4 Vesta, one of the major protoplanets of the asteroid belt, a team of researchers has developed a new model that reproduces the global topography observed by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, and makes predictions for the internal structure. A paper published Feb. 14 in Nature reports the team’s three-dimensional simulations of Vesta’s global evolution under two overlapping planet-scale collisions, starting from a spherical differentiated small planet.

The southern hemisphere of Vesta is dominated by two giant impact scars, one overprinting the other. A key issue regarding Vesta is to what extent its geology is derived from this pair of massive basins, and how deep the interior of Vesta was excavated by these global-scale collisions. According to the team’s simulations, materials from 80-100 kilometers beneath the basaltic crust of Vesta should have been excavated and exposed.

Planetary geologist Erik Asphaug, the Ronald Greeley Chair of Planetary Science at Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, is one of the paper’s authors, and has been studying the origin of the Vesta family of asteroids since the early 1990s. These ‘chips off Vesta’ are small asteroids that are believed to have been blasted off by these same collisions, ultimately bringing meteorites to Earth, samples of Vesta.

After examining Hubble Space Telescope images of Vesta obtained in the late 90s, Asphaug created the first numerical model of the Vesta-shaping collision, showing how chunks of the asteroid got blasted out of the huge crater. However, this early attempt at an impact model failed to reproduce the observed topography, and could not account for the fact that the asteroid is a rapidly rotating body, with a rotation period of only five hours.

With Dawn on its way to the asteroid, Asphaug worked with Martin Jutzi, lead author of the paper, to revisit the calculations and predict the consequences of such a mega-crater – this time in 3D. Their first attempt, published prior to Dawn’s arrival, showed that there should be massive deposits of ejecta distributed in strange mountainous deposits around the surface. But the real work could not begin until Dawn showed the detailed shape of the asteroid, giving the modelers something to aim for.

“When Dawn saw Vesta up close for the first time, we realized that our model was still too simple, because our topographic predictions were not very close,” explains Asphaug. “At the same time, the Dawn team reported the identification of two huge impact craters, both overlapping in the southern hemisphere! This changed everything, and we began looking at the effects of one impact structure forming on top of the previous one.”

Detailed images of Vesta revealed the south polar depression to be deeper and larger than estimated from previous Hubble observations, and consisting of two overlapping giant craters, one forming relatively early (a few billion years ago), and one relatively late (about one billion years ago).

The researchers took these observations into account as they created the new simulation, which reproduces the basin’s formation using a very high-resolution 3D simulation, including pre-impact rotation, and establishes some of the major impact-related aspects of Vesta’s geology. Overall, the model results are in good agreement with the topographic observations by Dawn.

“With the suitable choice of size, speed and impact angle for the colliding bodies, we get an excellent match to the topography – shape – of the asteroid,” says Asphaug. “But also, we find that two impacts dig twice as deep, so that there should be material from the deep mantle exposed at the southern hemisphere, and distributed all over the place.”

However, contrary to the researchers’ prediction, expected large areas of olivine-rich rocks or other characteristic mantle minerals, diogenites for example, are not observed on the surface.

It is possible that everything is masked by a layer of recent debris that hides the olivines and diogenites, although such a model has yet to be put forward. Instead the researchers propose that the interior structure of Vesta is very much different from what cosmochemists have considered ‘typical’ for a small differentiated terrestrial planet. Their conclusion is consistent with the fact that comparatively very few asteroids and meteorites have mantle-like compositions.

“I must say that I did not expect us to get so close to predicting the final topography of Vesta. That we predict, on the basis of two impacts, the major mountain ranges and ridges and gaps in crater rims was beyond my expectation,” says Asphaug. “I think this has raised the level of planetary collisional modeling to a state where you can begin to understand where shapes of minor planets come from, and in so doing, understand the specific provenance of the materials that are observed by telescopes and remote sensing, and that are brought back by sample return.”

“Of course, the story is not over,” he continues. “Hypotheses are meant to be overturned. But they are only valuable if they are testable.” The standard model for the differentiation of Vesta-sized asteroids suggests they evolve with an olivine-rich mantle, and olivine is found in the diogenite meteorites that presumably derive from Vesta. But Dawn sees no olivine at Vesta. This requires that the crater models are wrong, in which case topography must be explained in a different way, or else that the olivine that was exposed, was somehow hidden in the past billion years.

“Not to be forgotten is that Vesta is absolutely unique,” adds Asphaug. “It is the only major asteroid that has a basaltic crust, while other differentiated asteroids seem to have been destroyed down to their core. How did it get so lucky? We don’t know. It suggests we keep an open mind.”

Debris from Vesta’s colossal collisions are found on Earth in the form of meteorites. These meteorites probably did not derive directly from Vesta, but were ejected by impacts into the kilometer-sized Vesta-family asteroids that were the direct fragments of the more ancient massive collisions. ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies currently houses over 40 meteorites believed to originate on Vesta. Two notable specimens are currently on display in the Meteorite Gallery: Pasamonte (eucrite) and Johnstown (diogenite).

Already in the 1980s it was strongly suspected that certain meteorites probably derived from Vesta, so the Dawn mission has been a sample return mission in reverse, starting with the rocks and culminating in an asteroid mapping rendezvous. In early 2015 the spacecraft will conduct a comparable investigation of the even larger main belt asteroid Ceres.

(Nikki Cassis)

Image credit: Martin Jutzi, CSH, University of Bern / Pascal Coderay, EPFL.



Faculty and students in Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration collaborate with the artists of an upcoming exhibition centered on the issue of limited earth materials, specifically copper, on view Feb. 8 through May 11 at the ASU Art Museum.

The exhibition, titled Cu29: Mining for You, will explore the process of staking a claim, the idea of owning the Earth’s natural resources, and our dependence on copper for everything from saucepans to cellphones.

The artists and the exhibition curator, Heather Sealy Lineberry, have collaborated with geologist Steve Semken, a professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE), in building their ideas for the exhibition and programs. He specifically advised them on geology, as well as the issues of place and culture related to mining, copper mining in Arizona, and a clearer understanding of how earth materials are limited.

“Geologic processes have richly endowed the state of Arizona with copper deposits. Copper has been central to the modern history and economic development of our state. Geology is key to the understanding of how and where copper deposits formed in Arizona, and how copper can be mined most economically and with the least possible impact on the environment,” says Semken.

Semken was interviewed, along with SESE professor Donald Burt, an economic geologist who regularly teaches ore geology and resources courses, for a sound piece that will play continuously in the gallery. The collaged voices will include other scientists, chefs, musicians, sculptors, miners, climbers, electricians and others who use copper in their professions and lives.

The resulting exhibition traces the extraction of copper from the ground to its use by artists in their studios, electricians and plumbers in houses, and chefs in their kitchens. It contains a series of installations, some of which are formed by community participation, pointing toward the pervasiveness of copper in our lives—and our bodies—and our dependence upon it. Art objects from the ASU Art Museum’s collection will be displayed alongside copper scrap waiting to be recycled, raising further issues of use and value.

Geology students are contributing research on the limited elements and copper. Their work is focused on school programs as the exhibition addresses the State standards in science, Arizona history and art. The students will collaborate with ASU Art Museum student docents to lead the tours of the exhibition. Two SESE undergraduate majors — Salimeh Hobeheidar and Reed Seamons —received training and will be student docents for the exhibition.

“My role is to lead groups of people on a tour of the exhibit, talking with them about how copper impacts our lives and how the resource is becoming limited,” explains Hobeheidar, a junior majoring in Earth and Space Science Education. “My education degree is helping me a lot with this project. Since I did my project in Professor Semken’s “Earth Science in Arizona and the Southwest” class about copper being used in art, I can understand where the artists are coming from, and I am able to help explain what it is and what other minerals are, and how they impact our state and in general our society.”

Hobeheidar’s project from Semken’s class, a beautiful necklace of copper and copper minerals that she created, will also be on display in the exhibition.

Through projects like Cu29, faculty and students of SESE are able to share specialized geological knowledge with an audience that might not otherwise be exposed to science.

“The artists – Clare Patey and Mathew Moore – have long histories exploring through art events and installations what we need to live in cities, whether food or basic materials, whether London or Phoenix,” Lineberry says. “Working with Steve Semken and the students at ASU has inspired the artists to create this new, collaborative body of work so tied to our place, its history and future. They encourage us to look more closely at what we do, how we live and what is important.”

More details on the exhibit are available at:



The Grand Canyon offers otherworldly panoramas of plateaus and basins, towering canyon walls and soaring rock structures. If you’ve always wanted to raft the Grand Canyon and learn the story behind the rocks you’re seeing then the annual School of Earth and Space Exploration-sponsored raft trip is for you.

The date is May 6-13, from Lee’s Ferry, Ariz. to Whitmore Wash, a distance of 188 river miles. The trip is limited to 28 passengers on two boats, and the cost is $2,660. Travelers must be 18 or older.

“The Grand Canyon is a place where, in eight days, you can take people through the grand themes of geology,” says Paul Knauth, professor of geology in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration. “We will examine and discuss side canyons, geologic features, and fossils not normally viewed by commercial river trips.”

“Scenically, it’s unsurpassed. Don’t ever get hooked on it, because it will take you back again and again in a compulsive way,” says Knauth, who speaks from experience. Since about 1990, he has organized and led 25 trips, introducing interested members of the community to the geology behind the canyon’s celebrated scenery.

Knauth’s goal is to help the public experience the canyon as he experiences it. The trips take the form of tours, with Knauth acting as guide. Throughout the day, the group stops and discusses geologic features they encounter.

The trip price includes lodging at Cliff Dwellers Lodge the night of May 5 (double occupancy), basic camping gear, all meals while on the river, helicopter exit to Bar 10 Ranch, and plane flight back to Marble Canyon or Las Vegas.

The trip includes an extra day on the Colorado River relative to normal trips, a pre-trip orientation, the National Park entrance fee, a waterproof guide book, geologic handouts, a post-trip party/slide show, and bag return from the rafts to Phoenix.

“This last feature means you can bring amounts of gear not normally allowed, and you do not have to lug it out on the helicopter at the end,” explains Knauth.

Hatch River Expeditions provides the large, motorized inflatable rafts. Participants will rendezvous at the Hatch facility at Cliff Dwellers in Marble Canyon no later than the evening prior to departure and will return there via aircraft on the 8th day.

To make reservations, call Hatch River Expeditions at 1-800-856-8966. Specify that you want “Knauth’s geology trip putting in on May 6, 2013.”

Cancellation policies, insurance options, and other questions regarding payment are available at: Please note that the ASU-sponsored trip is a charter geology-oriented trip and has somewhat different logistics than the normal commercial trips described on the Hatch website.

For more information about the trip, call Knauth at (480) 965-2867, send an email to, or visit:

(Nikki Cassis)


Michael Veto, a third-year graduate student in the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University, has been chosen to build an infrared and visible light camera system that will launch on a space satellite. Veto, who earned his undergraduate degree in aerospace engineering at ASU, is a geology doctoral student of Philip Christensen, Regents' Professor of Geological Sciences in ASU's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

The new camera will play a central role in the payload for the Prox-1 satellite, which won the seventh University Nanosat Program (UNP) competition, sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Air Force Research Laboratory. It will be constructed in a cleanroom at SESE's new Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 on the Tempe campus.

The Prox-1 mission is designed by students at the Georgia Institute of Technology under the guidance of professor David Spencer, within Georgia Tech's Center for Space Systems. It will demonstrate automated trajectory control in low-Earth orbit relative to a deployed sub-satellite, or cubesat.

The flight plan calls for Prox-1 to release this smaller spacecraft, which is a version of The Planetary Society’s LightSail solar sail spacecraft. (A solar sail uses the pressure of sunlight for low-thrust propulsion.) Then using the ASU camera's images to guide its trajectory, Prox-1 will fly in formation with the LightSail spacecraft. The ASU camera will also take images of the LightSail solar sail as it opens.

In addition to demonstrating automated proximity operations, Prox-1 will provide first-time flight validation of advanced sun sensor technology, a small satellite propulsion system, and a lightweight thermal imager.

As the winner of the UNP competition, the Prox-1 mission will receive an Air Force launch slot as a secondary payload plus additional development funding over the next two years. The Prox-1 team will complete spacecraft integration and testing, working toward a launch in 2015.

In addition to support from the U.S. Air Force, the Prox-1 team has been supported by contributions from the Georgia Space Grant Consortium, The Aerospace Corporation, Raytheon Vision Systems, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Photo: ASU graduate student Michael Veto has begun work on an infrared and visible camera system that will fly as part of the Prox-1 satellite payload. The infrared part of the camera (in breadboard form) lies to the left of the laptop. Photo by: Arizona State University

(Robert Burnham)


SESE scientists Meenakshi Wadhwa and Tom Sharp are in Antarctica this winter, collecting meteorites as part of the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) 2012-2013 field season.  This is the first ANSMET team to feature two scientists from the same University!
You can read their blogs from the field, as well as those of other ANSMET team members, here.



Lectures, PowerPoint presentations and assigned readings are the basis of the typical classroom experience, but experts say science education is moving away from this traditional teaching routine.

A new teaching style called inquiry based instruction focuses on student inquiry and project-based learning. It encourages students to develop creative and practical problem-solving, experts said.
Kip Hodges, founding director of Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, will be honored in this week’s issue of Science magazine for his work in developing this teaching style.
Hodges was chosen as one of 15 recipients of the Science Prize for Inquiry Based Instruction by the editors of Science magazine. He describes his work in an essay published in the Nov. 30 issue of Science. “Instead of giving students information in a classroom, the idea behind inquiry based instruction is to create an environment where students have to find things out for themselves,” Hodges said.
Hodges initially developed the idea for his teaching style for a class named “Solving Complex Problems” at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he taught before moving to ASU in 2006.
In that class, Hodges said he challenged his students to design a mission to Mars to search for signs of past or present life.
“Students had to learn how to find information from many different domains of science, engineering and policy,” Hodges said. “They learned how to think across the boundaries of traditional disciplines.”
At ASU, he used the same approach teaching “Engineering Systems and Experimental Design,” a class typically taken by students majoring in Earth and Space Exploration in the School of Earth and Space Exploration and Aerospace Engineering in the School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy.
Frequently, he partnered in teaching the course with Winslow Burleson, a faculty member in ASU’s School of Computing and Informatics.
Shay Cheeseman, an Earth and Space Exploration senior, took the class as a sophomore. Her class was given the challenge of designing a mission to the moon.
Cheeseman said the class taught her skills that more traditional classes do not, including teamwork and taking an interdisciplinary approach toward problem solving.
“Students did a lot of work to make sure everybody did their part,” she said. “You have people depending on you, so it’s more like a work situation.”
Raymond Sanders, a senior astrophysics major, was a classmate of Cheeseman. He said the class focused on how science is done “in the real world.”
From the student’s perspective, “A lot of traditional lecture courses wind up being simple regurgitation,” Sanders said. “Hodges’ course takes the practical approach of ‘Here is a problem. I want to see how you solve it.’”
He explained that creativity is a key part of effective problem solving, especially when Hodges would throw challenges at the class like “What if your rocket blows up during the launch?”
“Hodges didn’t put constraints on anything. He didn’t want us talking about Star Trek or Star Wars, but he did want us to find novel ways to solve the problem,” Sanders said.
Hodges said that one of the goals of inquiry based education is to teach students how to be creative.
“When you’re an undergraduate, much of your education is about learning how to solve problems for which there is an answer key,” he said. “But after you graduate, society asks you to solve problems that have no well-defined solution, and that requires much greater creativity.”
Hodges hasn’t taught the engineering systems and experimental design class since the Fall 2011 semester because of curriculum restructuring within the school.
But starting in Spring 2013, Hodges will teach the senior capstone course for the school’s B.A. major in Earth and Environmental Studies as an inquiry based class.
“The more we teach students that there is a profound value to creativity, the better we’re serving them in terms of preparing them for the rest of their lives,” he said.
(Kristen Hwang)




Fresh produce at the supermarket, running water and the daily weather forecast are everyday conveniences that rely on soil moisture measurements.

Soil moisture, a term not heard in everyday conversation, is the water found in the top soil layers in the ground. This water is a key component of the hydrological cycle, the Earth’s system of moving water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the ground and back again.
Until now, the accuracy and applicability of soil moisture measurements obtained from space has been limited. However, an Arizona State University research team is working to change that.
Led by Enrique Vivoni, an ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration professor, the team recently received a $220,000 NASA grant for the development of a way to increase the utility of satellite-based soil moisture measurements.
The other team member is research engineer Giuseppe Mascaro, in ASU’s School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment.
“Soil moisture is the most important variable in the hydrological cycle of the land surface,” Vivoni said. “We’re talking about the water that can be used by plants and the water that’s in direct contact with the atmosphere.”
Who it affects
Before water makes its way into streams, lakes or reservoirs it exists as soil moisture.
Because soil moisture directly impacts the amount of water that is available in a particular region, water managers rely on soil moisture data to determine how much water can be released to cities and agricultural areas.
Eric Kamienski, a water resources manager in Tempe, Ariz., said water managers spend much of their time collecting data and monitoring the amount of water that is available to their area.
In years of drought, water managers need to know how severe the drought is and be able to predict how long it will persist. This information is partly based on soil moisture data, Kamienski said.
“The amount of water in storage determines how they allocate water,” he said. “When there are years with prolonged drought and you see reservoir levels fall, water managers have to take immediate action.”
The data also help scientists make weather and climate predictions.
“The amount of soil water in the landscape has a big effect on atmospheric conditions,” Vivoni said.
The dryness or wetness of an area impacts the amount of rainfall the area is likely to experience.
If an area is dry and has little soil moisture, there is little water that can be evaporated and recycled back as rainwater. This feedback loop helps scientists predict if a dry spell in that area is likely to continue.
Similarly, an area with large amounts of soil moisture is likely to flood when it rains. If government agencies know that an area is prone to flooding, they can ensure that appropriate emergency response measures are in place, Vivoni said.
Current measurements
Over the last ten years, a sensor aboard the NASA satellite Aqua collected soil moisture data by recording microwave emissions from the land surface. This sensor reported a failure and stopped working in October.
The instrument collected data at resolutions of about 25 square kilometers (about 10 square miles) per sample, Vivoni said. The data are too coarse to be useful for people like farmers or reservoir operators who manage plots of land that can be less than half a mile across, he said.
“Twenty-five kilometers is larger than Tempe. This means that there is a single soil moisture value for the entire city. That’s a big limitation,” he said.
The project
A new sensor, which is set to launch in November 2014 aboard the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite, will provide data representing 10 square kilometers (4 square miles). But Vivoni and Mascaro want to refine even those results. 
Vivoni and Mascaro developed and are testing a mathematical model that can provide detailed information on soil moisture data based on the less detailed satellite data.
Mascaro explained that the model will take the satellite’s data point representing 10 square kilometers and simulate the statistical variability of soil moisture values for each square kilometer within the larger area. This means that the model will be able to provide information on the soil moisture values for each square kilometer based off of the satellite’s coarser data. One square kilometer is about 0.4 square miles.
“Imagine having this bird’s eye view of soil moisture over the entire country,” Vivoni said. “It would give us an idea of how weather systems impact soil moisture and how our actions affect the landscape’s soil moisture.”
Vivoni and Mascaro proposed to include the model in the satellite’s computer system. This way the onboard calculations would be available to all scientists who use NASA data, not just to the team.
With this data available to others, Kamienski said he believes the project will benefit water managers and those whom they service.
“This is one more tool that they could use to determine overall watershed conditions,” he said. “It will help them know what the next season may look like so they can start planning reservoir operations accordingly.”
(Kristen Hwang)




To patrons of fine art, space might seem like a foreign frontier but the monOrchid art gallery in downtown Phoenix will bring the two together when it hosts dozens of images taken from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC).

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA mission that is a precursor to the return of humans to the Moon. LROC, which is one of seven instruments aboard the orbiter, is run from the Tempe campus by principal investigator Mark Robinson.
This unusual exhibit will feature LROC images of the Moon depicting impact craters, ancient lava flows and the Apollo landing site where astronauts first stepped onto the lunar surface. The exhibit will premiere Nov. 2, during the First Friday art walk in downtown Phoenix and remain open every Friday in November from 5 p.m. to 10 p.m.
MonOrchid is located at 214 E. Roosevelt St., in downtown Phoenix.
“The Moon is a really beautiful place,” said Robinson, creator of the exhibit. “These are like Ansel Adams images of the Moon.”
Robinson, who is also a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at ASU, said he was inspired to build the exhibit as a way to reach new audiences who would not typically get to see high quality lunar images. “This is a fantastic way to reach out to the public in a different way than we normally do,” he added.
MonOrchid owner Wayne Rainey said that on a typical First Friday night as many as 10,000 people visit his gallery. He said the exhibit is an opportunity to start a conversation with generations of people who did not grow up during the Apollo missions and never saw images of the Moon.
“The best art informs us emotionally and intellectually, and this is a chance to get kids involved in the arts,” Rainey said.
The centerpiece of the exhibit, a 10-foot square mosaic of Aristarchus Crater, will be accompanied by other large photographs showing prominent features on the lunar landscape.
LROC research engineer Emerson Speyerer has also put together a film that will be shown in the gallery. The film includes original footage taken during the first astronaut mission to the moon alongside modern-day footage taken by LROC.
“When people envision the moon, it’s nothing like what they actually will see and what we can take an image of,” Speyerer said.
Robinson added that exciting the public about space and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s mission to put humans back on the Moon is one goal of the exhibit.  
“The Moon is not a dead and boring place,” he said. “I want them to walk out of there and say, ‘Wow, the Moon is a beautiful place, and it’s great that we have spacecraft taking those pictures.”
(Kristen Hwang)

What began in the fall of 2011 as a class project has grown into something much bigger than expected. A group of Arizona State University students launched an experiment that could have far-reaching impacts on renewable energy and a reduction on the reliance of fossil fuels.

The group of seniors, led by Patrick McGarey and Amy Kaczmarowski, planned, designed, and recently launched a wind velocity experiment called the High Altitude Turbine Survey (HATS).

McGarey, the project lead, graduated from ASU this spring with a degree in Earth & Space Exploration (Systems Design) and decided to stay on to see the project through. McGarey has been with the project since its inception last fall, when he and his team first crafted the project proposal in Professor Srikanth Saripalli’s School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) senior design class (SES 410/411).

With an initial plan in mind, the team began working through different ideas. Many different concepts were expressed and “… a lot of wacky ideas,” McGarey quipped.

HATS is studying high altitude wind energy generation by measuring changing performance characteristics of two micro-turbine airfoils (propellers) aboard a NASA high altitude balloon. The balloon is similar to the one carrying Felix Baumgartner, the Red Bull Stratos iconic skydiver, to the edge of space. The study is looking at the feasibility of generating wind energy at high altitudes using specialized turbine airfoils, which would ideally be mounted on a tethered aerostat (stationary airborne platform).

The students’ project looks at wind power generated from turbine airfoils (propellers) at high altitudes. Seven miles into the air, the wind in the jet stream has been measured at more than 100 miles per hour. Harnessing this wind would provide a much more reliable source of wind energy than ground-based or off-shore wind farms currently offer.

Traditional ground-based wind energy has been less reliable due to high variability in wind and weather conditions on the surface. HATS may begin to open the door, making high altitude wind a more reliable renewable energy source.

The students aimed to create an apparatus for testing high altitude micro-turbine airfoils (propellers), to learn how propeller performance characteristics such as thrust and strain varied as the balloon went from sea level to over 24 miles in altitude. Additionally, the students installed sensors to measure varying atmospheric / environmental conditions throughout the flight.

According to McGarey, the system has, “ …sensors including optical encoders, strain gauges, thermocouples, pressure gauges, and a digital weather station, [that]will provide environmental data throughout ascent and descent in order to create a velocity and thrust generation profile corresponding to altitude, pressure, and wind speed.”

The basis for the project began when Kaczmarowski, systems engineering lead, came across an article regarding high altitude energy systems, which inspired her to form the initial concept for the balloon-borne payload that would become HATS. The article illustrated the potential for high altitude wind power to realistically serve as a source for clean energy in the near future.

Beginning in spring of 2012 the team of students, with their faculty lead, Professor Srikanth Saripalli, began to design and decide what was practical. They looked at what would work, using off-the-shelf items to develop the project. The team was grateful to receive funding from Saripalli’s ASTRIL field robotics laboratory and ASU/NASA Space Grant.

Later in May, testing began. Shay Cheeseman, another team member majoring in Earth & Space Exploration, programmed the software for the apparatus and refined the machine. The team worked within NASA guidelines and made sure everything met the requirements set forth from the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), a program offered by Louisiana State University (LSU), NASA Balloon Program Office (BPO), and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) that allows 12 student teams from around the country to fly scientific payloads into the upper reaches of the atmosphere.

Over the summer, McGarey traveled to CSBF in Palestine, Texas, and spent a week preparing the payload and getting ready to launch with fellow SESE student Alex Kafka. On September 1, from a different CSBF location in Fort Summer, New Mexico, McGarey attended the HASP balloon launch with the HATS payload attached.

The balloon, filled with over 11 million cubic feet of helium, was monitored as the half ton HASP payload traveled above 25,000 feet in altitude. The payload stayed airborne for over nine hours, traveling more than 500 miles across New Mexico and Arizona, even flying over ASU, before landing just west of Phoenix.

While the collected data will not be fully analyzed until later this year, McGarey and his team are calling the HATS mission a success.

“Anytime you create something that’s never been created before, you’re lucky enough to get functionality out of it,” McGarey explained.

That is precisely what happened. The payload did everything that it was designed to do, and there were no mechanical failures.

McGarey knows this is a field that very few have explored, with the exception of several exciting startup companies, who are currently developing working prototypes to harness airborne wind energy. Geothermal and solar energy are very popular, but harnessing high altitude wind is a field that has yet to be fully tapped.

Image: Patrick McGary works on HATS at CSBF in Palestine, TX July 2012

(Heath Harris)



If space is the final frontier, then why are we so tentative about exploring it and moving away from Earth? Space exploration comes with huge risks and a high price tag, but if we ever wanted to leave a truly lasting legacy, then humans will eventually need to have a permanent presence beyond our home planet.

Two events on Arizona State University’s Tempe campus will take a penetrating look at the future of space exploration and ask why progress has been so slow since Neil Armstrong landed on the moon 43 years ago.

The first event, fittingly, will be given by an astronaut who has logged more than 75 million miles in space. On Thursday, Oct. 25 (7:30 p.m., Neeb Hall), Australian-born Dr. Andrew Thomas will deliver the 2012 Eugene Shoemaker Memorial Lecture, an annual event organized by ASU’s Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science to celebrate the life and work of Arizona-based Gene Shoemaker, a pioneer of cosmic impacts who also helped train the Apollo astronauts. Titled “Human space flight: Why aren’t we boldly going?” the lecture will set out Thomas’s personal take on how America can re-invigorate the manned space program.

“Andy Thomas is the quintessential astronaut – calm, professional, inspiring and a brilliant speaker,” said Paul Davies, Director of the Beyond Center. “I am thrilled we have managed to get him for the prestigious Shoemaker Lecture.”

On Friday, an all-day symposium (10 a.m. to 6 p.m., Oct. 26, Marston Theater, ISTB4 building) will provide an in-depth analysis of how the dream of human space exploration can be re-kindled. Featuring an all-star line-up of space travel stakeholders, including the noted science fiction writer Kim Stanley Robinson, the symposium is co-sponsored by the Beyond Center, the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) and the new Center for Science and the Imagination.

Imagination will be much in evidence, as the symposium will begin with near-term goals, such as space travel privatization, and end with a sweeping vision of how futuristic breakthrough technologies mean we can still dream of reaching for the stars.

“Fasten your seat belts for a wild ride,” said Davies.

Speakers include George Whitesides, CEO and president of Virgin Galactic, who will talk about privatizing space travel; SESE director Kip Hodges, aerospace engineer and author Robert Zubrin of Mars Now, as well as astronaut Andrew Thomas and ASU faculty members Paul Davies, Lawrence Krauss and Sam Lawrence. This fascinating day of science, speculation and space will be launched by TV personality Hugh Downs.

Both events are free and open to the public. For more information, please go to, or call 480-965-3240.

Photo: An astronaut works outside of the international space station. The future of human space exploration is the topic of two upcoming ASU events on the Tempe campus. Photo by: NASA photo

(Skip Derra)