News and Updates

08/29/2014
September 06, 2014 
7 pm - 10 pm

Saturday, Sept. 6 is International Observe the Moon Night all over the world. In celebration, lunar scientists and researchers at Arizona State University's School of Earth and Space Exploration are holding an open house for the public dedicated to the Moon and Moon-observing.

The open house will run from 7-10 p.m., Sept. 6 (regardless of the weather) at the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Science Operations Center on ASU's Tempe campus. The center is located in Interdisciplinary Building A-wing, 1100 S. Cady Mall. Parking is available in the Apache Boulevard Parking Structure and on the street.

The public is invited to observe the Moon through telescopes, through stunning images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and through the eyes of scientists who have studied our neighbor world in detail.

At the open house, you will be able to:

• View the Moon through telescopes
• Examine detailed images of the Moon's surface taken by the LRO spacecraft
• Tour the Science Operations Center
• Ask scientists questions about the Moon and lunar exploration
• Participate in a scavenger hunt
• View an actual rock from the Moon, collected by Apollo 15 astronauts

Don't miss this great opportunity to explore the Moon with your own eyes through a telescope.

Robert Burnham, robert.burnham@asu.edu
(480) 458-8207
Mars Space Flight Facility
08/22/2014

New lunar meteorite to be on display at ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies

Arizona State University’s Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) recently received a precious gift. Aside from its price tag, what makes this space rock so special is where it came from: the Moon.

The new sample belongs to the rare class of meteorites originating from the Moon called “lunaites”. Of all known distinct meteorites in this world, of which there are tens of thousands, less than a hundred are thought to come from the Moon.

The softball-size meteorite donation is valued at about a quarter of a million dollars, and is likely to be the most significant single donation ever made to the Center.

“Of the tens of thousands of known meteorites (most of which come from asteroids), only a very tiny fraction are lunaites. So this is a very rare kind even among meteorites, which are themselves quite rare among rocks found on Earth,” says Meenakshi Wadhwa, director of the Center and professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration. “This new sample is probably one of our most prized pieces and without a doubt one of the most significant recent additions to our collection.”

Known as Northwest Africa 7611, this meteorite was found near the Moroccan/Algerian border in May 2012. It was subsequently purchased by the donor, Dr. Jay Piatek, from a Moroccan meteorite dealer. Piatek is an avid meteorite collector and owns one of the more significant private collections in the world. He is a supporter and generous donor to university and museum collections.

The Center has six other lunaites in its collection, but their total weight is about 60 grams. As such, this new lunaite, weighing 311 grams, represents a five-fold increase in the total mass of lunar material in the collection. The total known weight of the original specimen was 916 grams, and the mass donated to the Center is the largest remaining mass (or main mass) of this meteorite.

“The chemistry, mineralogy and textures of lunar meteorites or lunaites are similar to samples that were brought back from the Moon by the Apollo missions (1969-1972). These characteristics are quite distinct from other classes of meteorites and terrestrial rocks,” explains Wadhwa. “Lunaites can have a small amount of metal, but it is present in very small abundance compared to ordinary chondrites, for example, which are the most common types of meteorites.”

Classified as a lunar regolith breccia, this meteorite contains a mix of rock types from the Moon’s mare and highlands. However, because there is very little mare material on the far-side of the Moon, this regolith breccia most likely came from the near-side (that has both mare and highlands material).

The gift will be on display for the short term, but there are plans to use it for research purposes in the future years.

“It is a beautiful fresh-looking piece, with one cut and polished face that shows the internal texture and fabric of the rock – as such it displays a unique snapshot of the lunar surface,” says CMS collections manager Laurence Garvie.

Consisting of specimens from around 2,000 separate meteorite falls and finds, meteorites in the Center’s collection represent samples collected from every part of the world. Visitors may explore the collection weekdays, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., on the second floor of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV.

Photo Photo of the spectacular 311 gram lunar meteorite (NWA 7611) on display in ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies. The cut and polished surface uniquely shows the great diversity of rock types on the lunar surface. Photo by Laurence Garvie

(Nikki Cassis)

 

08/21/2014

To welcome this year’s incoming freshmen, the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) and the Center for Meteorite Studies at Arizona State University have dedicated a meteorite to the Class of 2018.

Meteorites are remnants of processes that occurred in the earliest history of the Solar System ~4.5 billion years ago.

The Class of 2018’s meteorite, a 381 gram slice of the Seymchan pallasite, was found in Russia in 1967. It is a stony-iron meteorite (pallasite) composed mostly of nickel-rich iron metal and olivine (a yellowish-green silicate mineral). It is thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of an asteroid that later broke apart such that pieces then fell to Earth as meteorites.

“This meteorite was obtained especially for the purpose of dedicating to, and inspiring, the Class of 2018,” says Professor Meenakshi Wadhwa, director of the Center for Meteorite Studies. “We wanted to give them a unique gift, something memorable – so this exceptional meteorite specimen seemed like the perfect fit.”

Incoming freshmen are encouraged to visit “their” meteorite, located in the lobby of the Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV (ISTB 4), part of the Gallery of Scientific Exploration.

The Center for Meteorite Studies in SESE houses the largest, most significant university-based collection of these unique materials. The Meteorite Gallery is located on the second floor of ISTB 4. The display is open to the public for self-guided tours Monday through Friday, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., excluding ASU holidays.

(Nikki Cassis)

 

08/19/2014

You may want to tune in for this:

SESE’s Sara Walker will be on NPR's Science Friday discussing the novel Dune on 8/22 for the Science Friday Bookclub. She will be on air 11:40-noon (AZ time).

For more information, visit: http://sciencefriday.com/blogs/08/05/2014/meet-the-dune-readers-kim-stanley-robinson-and-sara-imari-walker.html?series=20

 

08/18/2014

An Arizona State University alumna has devised the largest catalog ever produced for stellar compositions. Called the Hypatia Catalog, after one of the first female astronomers who lived ~350 AD in Alexandria, the work is critical to understanding the properties of stars, how they form, and possible connections with the formation and habitability of orbiting planets. And what she found from her work is that the compositions of nearby stars aren’t as uniform as once thought.

Since it is not possible to physically sample a star to determine its composition, astronomers study of the light from the object. This is known as spectroscopy, and it is one of the most important tools that an astronomer has for studying the universe. From it, researchers can often get information about the temperature, density, composition, and important physical processes of an astronomical object.

The digital catalog is a compilation of spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3,058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 500 lightyears of the Sun. It essentially lists the compositions of stars, but only stars that are like the Sun – or F-, G-, or K-type (the Sun is a G-type star) – that are relatively near to the Sun.

“This catalog can hopefully be used to guide a better understanding of how the local neighborhood has evolved,” explains Natalie Hinkel, who graduated from ASU in 2012 with her doctorate in astrophysics and is now a postdoctoral fellow at San Francisco State University (SFSU).

Putting together a catalog this large that is an accumulation of other people’s work required a substantial amount of background research – compiling the first 50 datasets took her about six months. In total, and with the help of her collaborators Frank Timmes, Patrick Young, Michael Pagano, and Maggie Turnbull, the project took about two years. Hinkel started the project as her dissertation at ASU; however, a significant number of changes and revisions were made to the published manuscript while Hinkel was a postdoctoral researcher at San Francisco State University.

Vizier, a database where researchers can post their astronomical data, was a starting point but since not everyone posts their data online, many times Hinkel had to go to individual papers and transcribe the data by hand.

The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications. The most obvious one for astronomers is looking at stars who host extrasolar planets, or exoplanets.

“Since 1997, we’ve known that stars with giant, Jupiter-like planets have quite a bit of iron in them. This result has been reproduced dozens of times. However, with a catalog of this magnitude, we can now study literally all of the other elements measured in stars in great detail to see if there are relationships between the presence of a planet (gaseous or terrestrial) and the element abundances,” explains Hinkel.

“Hypatia will help guide the future search for habitable planets as we learn to predict the properties of planets from the elemental makeup of the stars they orbit,” says ASU President’s Professor Ariel Anbar, who oversees the ASU Astrobiology Program. The work on the Hypatia Catalog was an outcome of the NASA Astrobiology Institute’s program at ASU.

Co-author Young, an associate professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, believes that “this is a great step forward in our understanding of the chemical compositions of stars, which fundamentally affect their evolution and the properties of the planets that accompany them.”

“Given all of the motion in the galaxy, this was a very unexpected result. But it’s also very exciting because of the huge number of implications for nearby planets, their compositions, and whether they could be habitable - by us or something similar to us,” says Hinkel.

While constructing the catalog, Hinkel noticed that the stars in the solar neighborhood reveal unexpected compositions, which is discussed in the paper published in the September issue of the Astronomical Journal.

The Sun is in the disk of the galaxy, where the vast majority of the Milky Way’s young stars are located. As the disk rotates, so too do the stars – both in the direction of the disk, as well as in smaller random motions.

“You can think of this like a swarm of bees: While the swarm in general moves, the bees themselves are going in all different directions. Because of this motion within the disk, the stars are considered to be well mixed – like a tossed salad. Therefore, you don’t expect to see, for example, a whole tomato in your salad – or many stars that have similar abundances in close proximity to each other,” explains Hinkel.

However, what Hinkel found is that the nearby ‘solar salad’ is comprised of lettuce at the bottom, chunks of tomato in the middle (where the middle of the galactic plane is), then lettuce again on top. In this case, the lettuce are stars that all have a high abundances of quite a few elements and the tomatoes are stars that have low abundances of those same elements.

In other words, the solar neighborhood does not appear to be a mixed salad; it’s a layered salad.

The full catalog will be available via Hinkel’s paper through the Astronomical Journal. The analyzed, reduced version will be made available through Vizier (http://vizier.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/VizieR), which anyone is free to access.

Photo: Natalie Hinkel gives a plenary talk at the Cool Stars 18 meeting in Flagstaff, Ariz. about her paper on the Hypatia Catalog. Courtesy Natalie Hinkel

(Nikki Cassis)
 

08/12/2014

The search for extraterrestrial life, popularly known as SETI, has traditionally focused on searching for life in the universe by scanning the skies for electromagnetic radiation, like radio waves. A better way to search for extraterrestrial civilizations might be to look for industrial pollution, argues Sara Imari Walker, an assistant professor in ASU's School of Earth and Space Exploration and the Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science, in a Future Tense article for Slate magazine.

Industrial pollutants like the climate-altering chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that human industries produce could potentially be detected from hundreds of light years away. Pollution may be a more reliable sign of advanced civilizations than radio waves, which, judging by our own technological development, are only a temporary stepping stone to more advanced communications technology.

The Earth, which once broadcast a high volume of radio waves into space, is becoming increasingly "radio quiet" as we shift toward digital communications. If extraterrestrial civilizations are like us, they will only be using radio waves for 100 years or so, which seems like a long time, but on a cosmic scale is "hardly the blink of an eye."

Henry Lin of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, which has led the way in championing the hunt-for-pollution approach, has questioned whether discovering pollution in the farthest reaches of space would really be a sign of intelligent life.

Lin wonders if "civilizations more advanced than us ... will consider pollution as a sign of unintelligent life since it's not smart to contaminate your own air." Walker's perspective is that "our methods to search for extraterrestrial intelligence are an intimate reflection of ourselves."

In a historical moment where pollution and climate change are in the forefront of our global consciousness, it's not such a surprise that we are searching the skies for other civilizations in a similar situation.

"Hopefully," writes Walker, "we will one day enter a phase of human technological development where we will possess the insights to look for 'greener' little green men."

To learn more about pollution and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, including hunting for alien garbage on the moon, read the full article at Future Tense.

Future Tense is a collaboration among ASU, the New America Foundation and Slate magazine that explores how emerging technologies affect policy and society.

Image: SETI has traditionally focused on looking for signs of life by scanning the skies for electromagnetic radiation. Above, a false-color view constructed using infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope of the Orion Nebula. Photo by: NASA/JPL-Caltech

(Joey Eschrich)

 

08/11/2014

A team of researchers from Arizona State University and Mayo Clinic is showing how a staple of earth science research can be used in biomedical settings to predict the course of disease.

The researchers tested a new approach to detecting bone loss in cancer patients by using calcium isotope analysis to predict whether myeloma patients are at risk for developing bone lesions, a hallmark of the disease.

They believe they have a promising technique that could be used to chart the progression of multiple myeloma, a lethal disease that eventually impacts a patient’s bones. The method could help tailor therapies to protect bone better and also act as a way to monitor for possible disease progression or recurrence.

“Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that can cause painful and debilitating bone lesions,” said Gwyneth Gordon, an associate research scientist in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration and co-lead author of the study. “We wanted to see if we could use isotope ratio analysis, a common technique in geochemistry, to detect the onset of disease progression.”

“At present, there is no good way to track changes in bone balance except retrospectively using X-ray methods,” said Ariel Anbar, a President’s Professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. “By the time the X-rays show something, the damage has been done.”

“Right now, pain is usually the first indication that cancer is affecting the bones,” added Rafael Fonseca, chair of the Department of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic and a member of the research team. “If we could detect it earlier by an analysis of urine or blood in high-risk patients, it could significantly improve their care,” he added.

The research team – which includes Gordon, Melanie Channon and Anbar from ASU, as well as Jorge Monge (co-lead author), Qing Wu and Fonseca from Mayo Clinic – described the tests and their results in “Predicting multiple myeloma disease activity by analyzing natural calcium isotopic composition,” in an early online edition (July 9) of the Nature publication Leukemia.

The technique measures the naturally occurring calcium isotopes that the researchers believe can serve as an accurate, near-real-time detector of bone metabolism for multiple myeloma patients. Bone destruction in myeloma manifests itself in bone lesions, osteoporosis and fractures. The ASU-Mayo Clinic work builds on a previous NASA study by the ASU team. That research focused on healthy subjects participating in an experiment.

“This is the first demonstration that the technique has some ability to detect bone loss in patients with disease,” said Anbar, a biogeochemist at ASU.

With the method, bone loss is detected by carefully analyzing the isotopes of calcium that are naturally present in blood. Isotopes are atoms of an element that differ in their masses. Patients do not need to ingest any artificial tracers, and are not exposed to any radiation for the test. The only harm done with the new method, Anbar said, is a pinprick for a blood draw.

The technique makes use of a fact well-known to earth scientists but not normally used in biomedicine – different isotopes of a chemical element can react at slightly different rates. The earlier NASA study showed that when bones form, the lighter isotopes of calcium enter bone a little faster than the heavier isotopes. That difference, called isotope fractionation, is the key to the method.

In healthy, active humans, bone is in “balance,” meaning bone is forming at about the same rate as it dissolves (resorbs). But if bone loss is occurring, then the isotopic composition of blood becomes enriched in the lighter isotopes as bones resorb more quickly than they are formed.

The effect on calcium isotopes is very small, typically less than a 0.02 percent change in the isotope ratio. But even effects that small can be measured by using precise mass spectrometry methods available at ASU. With the new test, the ASU-Mayo Clinic researchers found that there was an association between how active the disease was and the change in the isotope ratios. In addition, the isotope ratios predicted disease activity better than, and independent from, standard clinical variables.

Anbar said that while the method has worked on a small set of patients, much still needs to be done to verify initial findings and improve the efficiency of analysis.

“If the method proves to be robust after more careful validation, it could provide earlier detection of bone involvement than presently possible, and also provide the possibility to monitor the effectiveness of drugs to combat bone loss.”

Image: Arizona State University and Mayo Clinic researchers tested a new approach to detecting bone loss in cancer patients by using calcium isotope analysis to predict whether myeloma patients are at risk for developing bone lesions, a hallmark of the disease.

(Skip Derra)

 

08/01/2014

Ravi Lucas DeFilippo 9/1/1986 - 8/1/2010

Ravi DeFilippo, one of SESE's brightest and most promising alumni, was killed on August 1, 2010 in a mining accident near Mount Toromocho, Peru.

Four years later, Ravi’s brief, brilliant life continues to inspire us. We embrace the world he loved by finding passion in our studies, work, travel and love – just as Ravi did. “Mi deber es vivir, morir, vivir.”

If you would like to contribute a memorial donation, please send to:
Attention: Sonya Lindquist, ASU/School of Earth & Space Exploration, Ravi DeFilippo Geology Field Camp Scholarship,
P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 85287 – 6004

Or, if you prefer, you may donate online to: www.asufoundation.org/DeFilippoFieldCamp

 

07/31/2014

Arizona State University has been selected by NASA to design, deliver and oversee the Mastcam-Z imaging investigation, a pair of color panoramic zoom cameras, on the next rover mission to be launched to the surface of Mars in 2020. Jim Bell, a professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, will be the principal investigator overseeing the investigation.

NASA has selected the instruments that will be carried aboard the Mars 2020 mission, a roving laboratory based on the highly successful Curiosity rover. The instruments were competitively selected from 58 proposals submitted, two times the average number of proposals submitted for instrument competitions in the recent past and an indicator of the extraordinary interest in exploration of the Red Planet.

The Mars 2020 rover will be designed to seek signs of past life on Mars, to collect and store samples that could be returned to Earth in the future, and to test new technology to benefit future robotic and human exploration of Mars. The instruments onboard will help to build upon the many discoveries from the Curiosity Mars rover and the two Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity) and will be the critical next step in NASA’s strategic program of exploring the Red Planet.

Bell will oversee an international science team responsible for creating and operating the cameras on NASA’s next, yet-to-be-named, Mars rover. Bell has been responsible for the science imaging systems onboard the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and is the deputy P.I. of the color cameras on the Curiosity rover.

“These cameras will be the main eyes of NASA’s next rover,” says Bell.

The imaging system ASU will deliver is a pair of multispectral, stereoscopic cameras that will be an enhanced descendant of Curiosity’s successful imaging instrument called Mastcam. Mastcam-Z will be comprised of two zoom camera heads to be mounted on the rover’s remote sensing mast. This matched pair of zoom cameras will each provide broad-band red/green/blue (RGB) color imaging, as well as narrow-band visible to short-wave near-infrared multispectral capability.

Mastcam-Z will have all of the capabilities of Curiosity’s imaging instrument, but is augmented by a 3.6:1 zoom feature capable of resolving features about 1 millimeter in size in the near field and about 3-4 centimeters in size at 100 meter distance.

“The cameras that we will build and use on Mars are based on Curiosity’s cameras but with enhanced capabilities,” explains Bell. “Specifically we will be able to use our zoom capability to allow us to play a much more significant role in rover driving and target selection.”

Mastcam-Z’s imaging will permit the science team to piece together the geologic history of the site—the stratigraphy of rock outcrops and the regolith, as well as to constrain the types of rocks present. The cameras will also document dynamic processes and events via video (such as dust devils, cloud motions, and astronomical phenomena, as well as activities related to driving, sampling, and caching), observe the atmosphere, and contribute to rover navigation and target selection for investigations by the coring/caching system, as well as other instruments.

Bell’s large international science team will include Mark Robinson, School of Earth and Space Exploration professor and principal investigator for the imaging system on board NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera. Robinson brings significant experience in planetary geology and spacecraft imaging and will be responsible for characterizing the regolith from Mastcam‐Z images and assisting with camera calibration and mission operations.

In addition, Bell intends to involve a significant number of staff, undergraduate students, and graduate students in the mission. For example, SESE Research Scientist Craig Hardgrove and Technology Support Analyst Austin Godber are slated to play leading roles in the design, testing, and operations of the Mastcam-Z investigation.

Mastcam-Z remote instrument operations will be directed from the ASU Science Operations Center (SOC), housed in the Mission Operations Center located in the Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV on the ASU campus. ASU faculty, staff, and students will work closely with mission engineering leads at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

“We are very excited about playing such a critical role in NASA’s next Mars rover. And we are especially excited because this rover will be the first step in NASA’s Mars rover sample return mission,” says Bell. “We are eager are to play a role in the selection of the first Martian samples for eventual return to Earth.”

###

Caption: Jim Bell, a professor in ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration, stands in front of a model of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL, aka Curiosity rover) in ISTB 4. ASU has been selected by NASA to design, deliver and oversee the Mastcam-Z imaging investigation, a pair of color panoramic zoom cameras, on the next rover mission to be launched to the surface of Mars in 2020. Bell will be the principal investigator overseeing the investigation. Photo by: Andy DeLisle

(Nikki Cassis)

 

07/31/2014

The Universe is home to a variety of exotic objects and beautiful phenomena, some of which can generate almost inconceivable amounts of energy. ASU Regents’ Professor Sumner Starrfield is part of a team that used the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite to discover very high energy gamma rays (the most energetic form of light) being emitted by an exploding star. The surprising discovery dispels the long-held idea that classical nova explosions are not powerful enough to produce such high-energy radiation.

In March 2010, scientists using the LAT reported a surprising discovery: detection of gamma rays that appeared to come from a nova, V407 Cygni. The LAT, in orbit around the Earth, views ∼20% of the sky instantaneously and the entire sky every three hours. It is the most sensitive gamma-ray space telescope ever flown.

A nova is observed as a sudden, short-lived rapid increase in the brightness of an otherwise inconspicuous star. It results from runaway thermonuclear explosions that typically take place in a binary system on the surface of a white dwarf fueled by mass from a companion star. The outburst occurs when a white dwarf erupts in an enormous thermonuclear explosion. The explosion is equivalent to about 100,000 times the energy that the sun gives off every year. Unlike supernovas, novae do not result in the destruction of their stars.

Although novae produce bright optical events, they had not previously been considered as potential sources of high energy gamma rays since they are not predicted to accelerate particles to the required energies (very nearly the speed of light). Few cosmic marvels can accelerate particles to the energies required to generate gamma rays, billions of times more energetic than the type of light visible to our eyes. Researchers had expected and seen X-rays from the resulting waves of expanding gas in prior novae.

The finding overturned the notion that novae explosions lack the power to emit such high-energy radiation. Subsequently in June 2012, two more novae were detected with the LAT, Nova Sco 2012 and Nova Mon 2012, thus heralding novae as a new gamma-ray source class.

These findings are published in the August 1 issue of the journal Science with Teddy Cheung, an astrophysicist at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, as the lead author.

“This was a completely unexpected discovery and we still don’t understand the cause,” says computational astrophysicist Starrfield, a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at ASU. “No one suspected novae were violent enough to be emitting at these very high energies. However, it now seems possible that a signification fraction – near 100% – of novae are gamma ray sources.”

Origins unknown
The white dwarf star V407 Cyg lies 9,000 light-years away in the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. It erupted in a rare type of nova called a likely recurrent symbiotic nova, in which the companion star is a pulsating red giant star (about 500 times the size of the sun) blowing out a strong stellar wind. The explosion of the white dwarf occurs inside the atmosphere of the companion star.

Researchers suggested that the gamma rays in the nova were generated when the blast waves from the nova collided with the very dense winds from the red giant, something that doesn’t appear in classical novae.

Although the LAT followed up on later optically bright classical novae, it saw nothing for two years, and the theory that V407 Cyg was a special case seemed confirmed. Then, in June 2012, two separate novae were seen in gamma rays: Nova Sco 2012 and Nova Mon 2012 both emitted detectable levels of gamma rays.

But Nova Sco 2012 and Nova Mon 2012 are classical novae accreting from small, nearby companions. There’s no thick stellar wind to produce a shock like there is in V407 Cyg. So where are the gamma rays coming from?

The answer at the moment is: We don’t know.

Although researchers can’t yet explain how and why, what we do know is that novae can be gamma ray emitters and they are not as rare as originally suspected.

“We are puzzled and ongoing studies of possible causes are underway via computer modeling of the events,” says Starrfield. “This exciting discovery is telling us something important about the explosions of classical novae but we don’t, as yet, know what it means.”

###

Image: This picture is an artist’s conception of the explosion of V407 Cyg. It shows the white dwarf exploding inside the outer layers of its nearby companion star. Photo by: (c) David A. Hardy/astroart.org

(Nikki Cassis)